Arteries and veins

Approximately five litres of blood flow continuously through the human body. Two blood vessel systems are responsible for the transport of blood: the arteries and the veins.
The blood, which has been enriched with oxygen in the lungs, is pumped by the heart through the arteries into the most remote organs and parts of the body. This way, the cells of the body are supplied with oxygen and nutrients. The veins take over the return transport to the heart of the oxygen-depleted blood loaded with metabolic degradation products. From there the blood reaches the lungs where it is enriched with oxygen once again.

Venous diseases

The weakest link in the venous system is the tension in the walls of the veins, the so-called vein tone. If the tension is too weak, the veins have no external support and dilate.  The result is that the valves of the veins no longer close correctly. The blood flows backwards and becomes congested in the veins. As a result, pressure increases in the affected vein, the vein wall gives way and the vein valves in the vein sections below can also be drawn into the process.
Vein ailments usually develop a chronic clinical picture that is inclined to progress with age. A timely examination or treatment is therefore very important.

Possible causes

Risk factors for a vein weakness include a familial predisposition for a connective tissue weakness, predominantly sedentary or standing activity and a lack of exercise, pregnancy, overweight, constipation, consumption of specific medications such as contraceptives or hormone replacement medications, but also the use of alcohol or tobacco.

Therapy options

Besides the physical measures for tissue support such as wearing support or compression stockings, it makes sense to treat the affected legs from the first signs with special vein creams or gels from the pharmacy or drugstore.  These work to produce a soothing effect, reduce the swelling and regenerate the connective tissue. A physician should be consulted if there is severe pain or recurrent complaints.  Besides therapy using medications, a physician will also have operative treatment methods at his disposal.

Haematomas / bruising

A haematoma (contusion or “bruise”) means the discharge of blood from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissues of the body. The cause is usually an injury to a vein or an artery by a blow or an impact. The problem typically manifests as swelling, pain and discolouration of the skin, though not immediately after the injury. It is advisable to cool the affected area right after impact. Then the application of a cream or a gel can relieve the discomfort, and the bruises/ contusion will disappear faster.

You can learn more about the topic of vein ailments and haematomas at:

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